21 October, 2010

Baby’s World

Baby’s World

Parenting is a very responsible and tough task, but enjoyable too.

Child development is a process every child goes through. Ask for help when you need it from your spouse, partner, family, friends, and your child's doctor or nurse practitioner. Parenting is wonderful but it is not always easy!

Parenting can be hard work! Take care of yourself physically, mentally, and emotionally. It is easier to enjoy your new baby and be a positive, loving parent when you are feeling good yourself.
Whole article has been categorized under various stages on the basis of month.

This informative article is only a suggestive guide; consult your Doctor, if required, as he is the best to understand yours and baby’s requirement.

First 6 Weeks 

Newborns experience the world very differently from the way we experience the world. Newborns are totally dependent on us for their basic needs.

 Pay close attention to your baby, because she is paying close attention to how well you treat her.

Baby's vision is not fully developed yet. At birth, baby can only see objects that are about 8-12 inches away, like your face when you are holding her.

Your touch is very important to your baby. Holding your baby, you are communicating her that she is loved and safe.

Your baby feels temperature changes, so be careful to dress her appropriately for the weather.

Your baby can only tolerate liquids right now, so feed her only breast milk or iron-fortified formula (consult your doctor for this).

Your baby will need a lot of support to hold his head up. Be careful not to let his head wobble or shake.

Your baby may move his arms and legs to show his interest in the action around her.

Your baby may have sudden jerking movements, so when you are carrying her, be careful to support her well.

Your baby's cry is her way of communicating her needs. Your baby cries to let you know when she is hungry, tired, hot, cold, bored, sick, or wants to be held. Very soon, you will notice that your baby's cry sounds different based on her different needs.

When your baby makes eye contact with you, she is communicating his interest. Your baby may pull back, or turn away from you to show that she needs a break.

In these weeks, your baby will sleep much of the time. This is a good time for you to rest.  When your baby is awake and alert, it's your time to interact.

The sooner you respond to your baby's crying, the better it is for your baby's sense of security.

1½ to 3 Months

By three months, your baby is awake for a good part of the day, and sleeping most of the night. Your baby is ready to learn about the world when she is awake. It's a good time to slowly introduce new experiences to your baby. New experiences will help your baby's brain develop. When your baby is asleep, make sure she is lying on her back unless your doctor tells you otherwise.

Your baby's vision is improving. She is able to follow moving objects better. She can see close objects more clearly.

She is starting to look in the direction where sounds are coming from.
She sees your smile, and learns to smile back.

Your baby is discovering her hands, and may spend time just looking at them.

You may notice that your baby likes to listen to music. Music may calm your baby, or make your baby smile and move his arms and legs.

Your baby loves to hear your voice, so tell her about what is going on around her.

Your baby's hands are opening up more. Your baby may close her hands around objects placed in the palm of her hand.

If you rub different materials or toys against her fingers, she will move her fingers against the material or toy.
Your baby may even enjoy the feeling of her hand in her mouth.

How much and how often your baby eats will vary.

Your baby can only tolerate liquids right now, so feed her only breast milk or iron-fortified formula (consult your doctor for this).

Your baby's gums need to be cleaned with an infant toothbrush or wet washcloth/gauze after feedings and at bedtime.

When you place your baby on his stomach for a little while, your baby will learn to hold up his head.
Your baby is also learning to control the muscles in his arms and legs by grabbing or kicking at toys or people.

Your baby likes to make cooing sounds. When you hear your baby cooing, it's a good idea to coo, sing, or talk in return.

Your baby's cries are becoming easier to identify. She will be able to use her sounds to tell you if she is hungry, wet, tired, or wants a change of position.

Your baby still uses body language to tell you how she feels about what is going on.  She may bring her hand to her head to signal that she wants a break, suck her fingers or hand, or turn her head away from you.

Take your baby to different parts of the house so she can experience different things.

Change your baby's position every so often. She may like to sit in a swing for a while, than lie on his belly for a few moments before being cuddled in your arms.

Your baby will eat about every 3-4 hours. Some babies learn to sleep through the night; others still need to eat during the night. Remember to rest when your baby rests, if you can.

Songs and nursery rhymes help your child to be ready for stories and picture books later on.

3 to 6 Months

Your baby is becoming more social these days. Your baby will smile more often, and begin to laugh. Your baby will enjoy playing simple games with you.

Your baby can focus on objects as far away as three feet.

Your baby can follow objects going across her and over-and-under her.

Depth perception is developing in your baby. She can begin to differentiate between objects that are close to her and objects that are far away.

You can begin introducing solid foods once your doctor says it is okay.

When solid foods are given, be sure she is sitting upright to reduce the risk of choking.

Solid foods should begin with iron-fortified, single-grain cereals.

Stay away from "low-fat" foods at this stage because your baby needs the fat content in foods to grow.

Your baby's gums need to be cleaned with an infant toothbrush or wet washcloth/gauze after feedings and at bedtime.

Your baby may be experiencing pain and/or swollen gums as her teeth begin to come in. Most babies get their first tooth at 6-7 months, although some get it as early as 3 months or as late as 12 months.
Try gently massaging the gums with a clean fingertip to provide relief for teething pain. Your baby may feel better when chewing on cold objects (e.g. chilled washcloth, teething ring, or cool spoon). Make sure the object won't break or make her choke.

When you put your baby on her belly, she will learn to push up on her hands to look around.
She may start to roll over during these months. It is a good idea to always make sure you leave your baby in a safe place, like a crib or on the floor.

If you prop pillows around your baby, she will enjoy sitting up. However, your baby probably can't sit yet without support.

Your baby can reach and grab things now.

Your baby puts all kinds of things in his mouth. It's another way of exploring toys.

Since your baby loves to put things into his mouth out of curiosity, keep small objects that she could swallow and choke on away from his reach.

Your baby is imitating more facial expressions.

You may hear your baby making more sounds when playing by herself.

You may hear growling or gurgling; you can have a "conversation" by copying your baby's sounds and taking turns "talking".

Your baby may respond differently to the voice of a stranger than to the voice of a familiar person.

Your baby will begin to smile at herself in the mirror

Prop up your baby with pillows, or sit her in your lap, and give her toys to explore with his hands or mouth.

Give your baby lots of opportunities to reach for things with different textures.

Sing songs with rhymes to your baby.

"Read" books with bright pictures to your baby. Your baby will enjoy the sound of your voice and the pictures in the book!

Your baby probably still needs 2-3 naps per day. Remember to rest if you can during this time.

6 to 9 Months

Your baby is beginning to move his body into different positions. Don't expect her to stay in one place for too long. Your baby still enjoys playing with toys or things that are within her reach.

Start weaning her from the bottle and introduce a cup (for sipping).

Your baby will explore the world by putting things in her mouth at this age. Be careful not to let her near small items that she could choke on since

Your baby enjoys learning about her surroundings. She is paying more attention to the size and shape of objects.

As your baby reaches for things, you will see that she can grasp the object she wants on the first or the second try.

Your baby will also be able to see tiny things more clearly and pick them up.

Your baby may try to hold her bottle.

Your baby can move a toy easily from one hand to the other.

Your baby is learning to sit by herself without pillows or your body as support. Many babies love to stand when you hold them up.

Your baby's cooing has turned into babbling.

Your baby may turn her head when you call her name.

If you hide your baby's bottle or toy part of the way, and she sees where you put it, she may try to reach for it!

Your baby enjoys repeating an action over and over. She is learning that actions have effects.

Your baby shows you in many ways how much she enjoys you. She may smile and laugh when she sees you.

Your baby is picking up on your feelings by the tone in your voice. He may smile when he hears a note of happiness in your voice. When he hears anger in your voice, he may frown or look worried.
9 to 12 Months

You will notice that your baby is very curious and explores her surroundings. Everything is interesting to your baby.
Lock up small items your baby could put in his mouth and choke on. Shorten cords for blinds or draperies. Lock cabinets. Put safety plugs in electrical outlets. Remove or cushion furniture with sharp edges. Your baby will probably fall down a lot. Table corners are very dangerous. Make a safe place for your baby to crawl and play on the floor.

Begin spoon-feeding your baby using baby-sized utensils.

Your baby will enjoy learning to picking up a toy in each hand and banging them together.

Your baby is also learning to voluntarily let go of things and will "practice" dropping objects to watch where they go.

Your baby will soon learn to throw things.

You may see that your baby wants to pick up her own food. She may eat finger foods on her own.

Crawling is the most popular way for babies this age to get around. Make a safe, clean area on the floor for her to practice crawling.

Most babies walk after they become good at crawling.

Your baby will pull herself up from the floor to stand against a sofa, a table, or you.

Your baby is preparing herself to take his first step by herself.

Notice that your baby starts to use her pointer finger to show interest in something and to share it with you. Your baby will also be learning to look at something you point to.

When you say "no," your baby may stop what she is doing and may even look at you.

Your baby may say her first word during this period and know what it stands for.

Your baby likes to drop her toys against different surfaces. She is noticing all of the different sounds that are made.

Put a toy behind your back and your baby may crawl to look for it.

Your baby will also learn to go around, under or over things in her path for an object she wants.

Your baby may be happy to sit with you when you show her books with large simple pictures of ordinary things.

She will like simple children's songs or rhymes.

Your baby may try to imitate some of the things that you do. She may try to drink from the cup the way that you do, talk on the phone, or wave bye-bye.

When your baby points to something, name it for her.

1 to 2 Years

Learning to walk and talk is your child's biggest thing in this year. Make sure that your child is always supervised.

Your child should be on an eating schedule and can take meal 3-4 times a day.
Your child's appetite may decrease; a child of this age is eating about 1/4 of an adult serving.

Your child may prefer only one type of food ("food jag").

Your child may be seeing a pediatric dentist every 6 months.

Your child will move from finger feeding to trying to use a spoon this year.

With practice, your baby can learn to drop toys into buckets or bowls.

Your child may enjoy making marks on paper with crayons. Supervise her so he does not put the crayons in her mouth.

You may notice that your child loves to stack things up and then knock things down.

Your child may enjoy simple shape sorters or puzzles after 18 months.

Your child may try to take things apart. Keep toys with small parts that your child could choke on away from her.

Soft shoes or bare feet are probably best when your child is learning to walk.

Your child will learn how to roll and kick a ball.

If there are stairs in your child's environment, she may try to walk up them with help.

When your child points at something, use words to teach name of the object.

By 2 years, he should know at least 50 words.

Your child will learn how to match two objects together by color, shape or size.

Your child is learning how to communicate his wants, needs, and feelings by using words and facial expressions.

Your child may prefer the company of adults rather than other children.

Your child may show jealousy when he isn't the center of attention.

Tantrums are normal at this stage.

Redirect your child from unsafe activities to more appropriate activities.

2 to 3 Years

Toddlers have high energy levels. Tantrums are common so patience is important.

Your child should start the habit of washing his hands before meals.

Your child is more interested in scribbling with crayons. He will begin to copy lines first, and then circles.

Towards his third birthday, your child may enjoy learning to cut with safety scissors.

Your child will enjoy simple stringing activities with large beads. Make sure the beads are large enough so that your child will not choke if he puts them in his mouth.

Your child will learn to run without tripping too often.

Your child will also learn to jump on both feet.

Your child will learn to walk up and down stairs independently.

Your child will be able to balance her weight on one foot for a few seconds.

You will be surprised at how many words your child will learn this year! Try writing down the words that he knows every three months. Your child will learn to talk in short sentences.
Your child will be able to talk about events that he remembers happening in the near past, but will confuse words like yesterday and tomorrow.

Though he may not always follow your directions, your child does understand you better.

Most strangers will understand at least 50% of what your child says.

Your child will understand simple stories. Your child's imagination will become more vivid. She may even have imaginary friends and will play pretend with dolls and stuffed animals.

Your child also will learn to match familiar items to pictures of those items. Your child may enjoy simple puzzles.

Your child will be able to name pictures of objects and point to pictures of people doing familiar activities in books.

Your child will learn to count "1-2-3" and understand what those numbers mean.

Your child is showing more interest in other children. He will be more cooperative in simple games with other children. He will like playing with other children.

Your child will like having a daily routine. Help her adjust to new experiences or persons by introducing her to the new person or situation slowly.

By the end of this year, your child will know that he is a boy, or that she is a girl and she can identify herself in the mirror.

Your child will enjoy playing with your old shoes, purses, or hats. Playing with dress-up clothing will help your child with her dressing and undressing skills.

Be firm, and consistent in setting limits for your child.

3 to 5 Years

At this age, your child believes that everything revolves around her. She is the center of her world. Her world is full of magic. Her imagination is working all the time. She is also learning to be a good companion to other children her age. Preschool, day care or playgroup provides a great opportunity for your child to learn appropriate social skills.

Children should stop sucking their thumb by 4 to 5 years. Thumb sucking beyond this age is strongly discouraged because it can cause dental problems, calluses, infections and social teasing.

Your child will learn to hold his crayon better. Fat pencils and crayons help her to start drawing and pretend writing.

Your child will learn how to button his clothes and zip and unzip by herself.

Your child may offer to help with household chores. He may learn to pour liquid from a pitcher into a cup. Spilling at this age is normal though, so make sure your expectations are in line with what he can do.

Your child will learn to throw and catch a large ball.

Hopping, climbing and skipping are activities that your child may love to practice.

Your child will learn to pedal a tricycle during this period.

Your child may be more prone to accidents because she may be more adventurous.

Protect your child from falls by making sure play equipment is safe and supervising your child.

Asking "why" is a favorite activity for your child during this period.

Your child will learn to listen to the explanations of others with interest.

Your child's vocabulary continues to grow rapidly.

Your child's imagination and his increased ability to remember the past make her an interesting storyteller.

Your child can recite familiar stories you have read. Reading is all about playing with words and sounds through rhymes, songs and stories.

Your child should be able to answer questions like "What do you do when you are sleepy or hungry?"

Your child will learn to know different shapes by name (circle, square, triangle) and colors (blue, red, yellow, green).

Your child will, by age 5, know how to tell a story with a beginning, middle, and end.

By setting firm and consistent limits for your child, you will begin to teach your child the difference between right and wrong.

Your child will have a better understanding of the concepts of past, present and future by the end of this period.

During this period, your child may develop new fears especially about unfamiliar sights and sounds.

Your child will learn to share with others, most of the time.

Your child will learn to follow simple rules in games like "hide and seek", but will always want to win and be first. Playing "fair" comes later.

Your child will enjoy playing make believe games.

Your child may be very easily influenced by what he watches on TV. He may try to act as if he were his favorite character. Supervise what he watches.

Your support and guidance will help your child begin to gain control of his emotional, aggressive, and sexual impulses.

You may notice that your child will approach other children and begin to play with them.
Be aware that a normal part of your child's development during this period is sexual exploration of one's own body. Your child will learn about what is appropriate from your messages to her.

Make outdoor playing time part of your child's daily routine. Visit playgrounds or parks and go for walks.

Read to your child regularly, every day if you can.

5 to 8 Years

As your child begins school, each day becomes an adventure and a time of discovery. This period of childhood is the time each child begins to learn skills needed to become a self-sufficient person. Each child has his or her own personality that influences each step of learning and development. Physically, this is also a time of tremendous growth.

Muscular strength, coordination, and stamina increase, though your child may be somewhat clumsy at this time as his height and weight increase so rapidly.

Your child can start putting the toothpaste on by herself. As she gets older (around 7 years) you no longer have to brush her teeth.

Your child may begin to lose her "baby" (primary) teeth around age 6. It is very important that your child see a dentist regularly to ensure the growth of healthy permanent teeth. Your child should be seeing a pediatric dentist every 6 months.

Your child will learn how to use a pencil to make shapes (like a square) and then to make letters, words and sentences.
Your child will be drawing people, houses and trees with more detail than before

By age 7, your child will be able to tie her shoes.

Your child will be able to do a complicated activity like pumping herself on a swing, skipping, jumping rope, or swimming strokes.

Your child will develop more visual-motor coordination and be able to catch bounced or thrown balls more easily. The balls can be smaller now.
Your child will be able balance on one foot for 10 seconds.

Your child will be able to recognize opposites, define objects by their use, and use relatively good sentence structure.

Be a good listener yourself and encourage stories.

This is the time for learning the fundamentals of reading, writing, and basic math.

Your child is eager to learn and has a strong desire to please adults.

Children at this age can be both cooperative and competitive. Both can promote learning.

Your child may focus on only one part of a situation.

Your child may believe that objects have feelings.

Your child will understand the concept of today, tomorrow, and yesterday.

Your child will be able to follow two-step directions.

Your child will know his full name, age and address.

Your child will be able to answer who, what, when, where, why questions.

Developing self-esteem is a central issue at this age.

Home is still very important and is the foundation for your child to become independent.
Increasing separation and independence from parents are healthy steps in your child's development, so going to grandma's or a friend's house are important.

Children at this age tend to identify with parent of the same sex.

Your child is beginning to compare herself against other people's expectations.

Your child is becoming aware that she is one of many people in the world. Up to this time, most children are focused primarily on themselves. Sometimes, this makes a child seem less outgoing than before.

By age 8, your child will probably be more focused on his peers.
Your child is developing the social skills to make friends.

Your child is a wonderful mimic. He imitates both good and bad adult behavior.

Your child is able to communicate well with others without your help.

How other children perceive your child will affect his self-image.

Your child will love board games and other types of games at this age. Let yourself be a kid again and play with her!

Your child will start to be able to think about the world from someone else's perspective. During this time, your child will start to gravitate toward playing with children of her own sex.

Your child will become very interested in the difference between truth and lies.
Be open and honest with your child. Praise your child appropriately.

Your child often develops modesty around this time. Respect your child and his individuality.

Child may also become more interested in his genitals and begin fondling them. This is a good time to calmly discuss sexual differences between boys and girls.

The factor that influences child development is the environment. This includes experiences children have in their home, school and community environments.

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